Egypt is a major regional media player. Its press is one of the most influential and widely-read in the region, and its TV and film industry supplies much of the Arab-speaking world with shows from its Media Production City.
However, virtually all media are under direct control of the government, the secret services, or business leaders with political influence, says Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
Egypt is one of the world’s biggest jailers of journalists, says RSF. Legislation has made it possible to imprison journalists and close websites “for sharing independently reported information”.
Citizens can be arrested and criminally charged for social media posts and online content, says Freedom House. A 2018 cyber crime law allows the authorities to block any website deemed to threaten national security or the economy.
Television is the most popular medium. There are two state-run national TVs, as well as state-run regional and thematic networks.
Egypt is a big force in satellite TV. Most leading Arab pay TV networks have a presence at Media Production City in Cairo. Egypt was the first Arab nation to have its own satellite, Nilesat.
There were 54.7 million internet users by July 2022, comprising 51% of the population (Internetworldstats.com). Mobile platforms account for the largest share of users. Facebook, YouTube and WhatsApp are popular platforms. For politics and online campaigning, Egyptians prefer Facebook and Twitter.